#DH2015 – Introduction to Digital Manuscript Studies Workshop

Sign saying 'Building EA/DH2015/Global Digital/Humanities' with an arrow behind the writing.At some stage or another any historian in the twenty-first century will consider embarking on a digitisation project of their own. Back in 2010 I briefly explored the possibility of organising the digitisation of some old school text books that I had been researching as part of my work on the Teaching Reading in Australia project. If I was to organise this I wanted to do it properly and ensure the resulting data could be linked to other similar historical data and be useful for other researchers. I did not want to do another project that merely reproduced pretty pictures of text (pdfs) which were not machine readable.

I was quickly confronted by the sad fact that my ambitions exceeded my skills. From attending THATCamps, reading blogs and following digital humanists on Twitter I knew that I should encode the data in XML using the framework provided by the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), but I didn’t know how to do that. I don’t like doing something unless I do it properly, and I always have too much to do, so I dropped the idea.

Like all historians I have transcribed many hand-written documents from photos of primary sources I have taken for research purposes in the archives. Each document is idiosyncratic. The relevant items on a page are not restricted to words. There are underlines, crossed out words (who did the crossing out?), notes scribbled in the margins by the original author at a later date or someone else. There are arrows, drawings or diagrams. Too often the writing may be illegible. Each of these important bits of information needs to be recorded in the transcription. Quite often I will use markup borrowed from html or make up my own methods to signal a type of message in a transcription.

Since then I have been fascinated by a project of Dr Melodee Beals who is a Senior Lecturer in History at Sheffield Hallam University. Beals is marking up her transcriptions of historic documents in TEI. Separating the design from the text is a fundamental principle of web design. TEI enables us to prepare the transcription in a way that can be easily formatted for display on websites via XSLT. Beals’ project makes so much sense for historians. Why not incorporate some basic TEI markup in our transcriptions from the moment we start transcribing documents?

I needed to learn more about this mysterious TEI.

Fortune smiled and one of the workshops offered at this week’s Global Digital Humanities Conference covered basic TEI. For the last day and a half I have been learning about TEI and manipulation of images in the workshop, ‘Introduction to Digital Manuscript Studies‘ conducted by Elena Pierazzo, Professor of Italian Studies and Digital Humanities at the University of Grenoble 3 ‘Stendhal’, and Peter Stokes, Senior Lecturer in Digital Humanities at Kings College London. (Have a look at the impressive results of Pierazzo’s TEI transcription work on Proust’s notebook).

I now have the kickstart that I need. Last night I worked on marking up a transcription I had done of a document from my own project to reinforce what I had learned. One thing that has been bothering me about some transcriptions available on the internet is the lack of consistency with date formatting. There are many ways we can write dates and authors of handwritten documents use all sorts of approaches. Last night I discovered ‘13 Names, Dates, People, and Places’. This is the TEI chapter for me! I discovered how to encode a consistent, searchable date format while preserving the idiosyncratic way it was recorded in the original document. Oh, the potential of this! Continue reading

Rails Girls Canberra

Hard at wok - Rails Girls Canberra.

Hard at work – Rails Girls Canberra.

Women were programming pioneers. Ada Lovelace is recognised as the world’s first programmer.  In the nineteenth century she wrote the instructions which could activate Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine.  Her feat is recognised today through the Ada Lovelace Day which falls on 15th October in 2013.

It was not until the mid-twentieth century that computing really took off.  The ENIAC computer developed during WWII is recognised as the first electronic computer.  The entire ENIAC programming team were women. Grace Hopper wrote the first automatic compiler and led the development of the COBOL programming language which went on to become one of the world’s most popular business programming languages.

Yet the proportion of women programming has declined over the last couple of decades.  Today women are only a small proportion of  software developers.  There has been much wringing of hands about this, but wringing of hands does not achieve anything other than warm up our hands.

One development community is taking action to increase the numbers of women in website development.  I was fortunate enough to be able to participate in one of their events earlier this month.

Ruby on Rails is a popular development framework that is used to create websites.  The Rails community has supported a training program for women called Rails for Girls.  It started in Finland and is now well established in many countries including Australia.

I was fortunate enough to be able to participate in one of their introductory workshops in Canberra recently. Continue reading